What is Grupo Frente?
Grupo Frente was a movement founded in 1954 Brazil by teaching artist Ivan Serpa. Many students at the Rio de Janeiro Museum of Modern Art participated in the movement, which sought to reject the nationalism and figuration in modernist forms of Brazilian painting.Artwork by Ivan Serpa
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Tempera is a paint traditionally made with colored pigments and egg yolks. The paint dries quickly and lasts a very long time. Some examples still remain from 100 AD. Modern tempera paint uses glue size with the colored pigments instead of egg yolks.
Carborundum is the trademark name for silicon carbide crystals used as an abrasive material in sandpaper, cutting tools and grinding wheels. Artists originally used the substance for grinding lithography stones, but collagraph prints use it to create texture and tone gradients.