Sam Francis

Untitled, 1984

106.7 X 73 inch

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What is cement?

What is cement?

Cement is any variety of mixtures of clay, limestone, water, sand and gravel which forms concrete to be used as material for building things. To cement also means to join or unite. In art, cement can mean the process of gluing securely.

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Cynical Realism

Cynical realism is the term first used in 1992 by art critic Li Xianting to describe the Beijing artist group which painted satirical social realist paintings. The group sought to depict the psychological turmoil experienced when China was struggling with new political ideology.

Dusseldorf school of photography

Dusseldorf School of Photography is the name for the photographers who studied under Bernd and Hiller Beecher at the Kunstakademie Dusseldorf during the 1970s. This group was devoted to the black and white industrial images of the German tradition called New Objectivity.

Systems Art

Systems Art describes a group of artists which used the structures of conceptualism and minimalism to create artwork responsive to their environment. They rejected traditional art themes and embraced aesthetic systems in experimentation with diverse media, connecting with late 1960s to early 1970s political movements.

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